Ages 3 to 5

In this tab you can find activities, games, stories, and resources to engage your children according to different age levels. These resources can help your child get excited about reading and learning to read.

These activities are targeted for ages 3-5.


The Million Word Gap

That’s how many fewer words some children may hear by kindergarten.

Young children whose parents read them five books a day enter kindergarten having heard about 1.4 million more words than kids who were never read to, a new study found.

This “million word gap” could be one key in explaining differences in vocabulary and reading development, said Jessica Logan, lead author of the study and assistant professor of educational studies at The Ohio State University.

Even kids who are read only one book a day will hear about 290,000 more words by age 5 than those who don’t regularly read books with a parent or caregiver.

“Kids who hear more vocabulary words are going to be better prepared to see those words in print when they enter school,” said Logan, a member of Ohio State’s Crane Center for Early Childhood Research and Policy.

Million Word Gap Article



Activities- Helping Your Child Become a Reader- Children Ages 3-6

This page from the U.S. Department of Education provides ideas for language-building activities to do to develop literacy skills. The activities and roles for both children and parents change as the child grows. The different stages addressed are: babies (birth to 1 year), toddlers (1 to 3 years), preschoolers ( ages 3 and 4) and kindergarten/early first graders (ages 5 and 6).As a parent, you can help your child want to learn in a way no one else can. That desire to learn is a key to your child’s later success. Enjoyment is important! So, if you and your child don’t enjoy one activity, move on to another. You can always return to any activity later on.

Helping Your Child Become a Reader


Reading Rockets for Parents Page- Reading and Learning with Your Child

Reading Rockets is a site well loved by educators and parents. This direct link to the parent page provides something for all readers. Reading and Learning With Your Child, Childrens’s Books and Authors, and Helping your Struggling Reader are just a few of the links you will find on this page.

Reading Rockets website.


Ohio’s BOLD Beginning!

Now you have an easy way to access all things related to early childhood in Ohio’s state agencies! This site is a resource for all people interacting with young children — whether a parent, grandparent, caretaker, teacher, child care provider — there is valuable information for all.
Ohio’s Bold Beginning Website

Early Literacy


CDC Milestones

Skills such as taking a first step, smiling for the first time, and waving “bye bye” are called developmental milestones. Children reach milestones in how they play, learn, speak, act, and move (crawling, walking, etc.).



CDC Developmental Milestones


How to Grow a Reader

You can read anything to a newborn: a cookbook, a dystopian novel, a parenting manual. The content doesn’t matter. What does matter is the sound of your voice, the cadence of the text and the words themselves. Research has shown that the number of words an infant is exposed to has a direct impact on language development and literacy. But here’s the catch: The language has to be live, in person and directed at the child. Turning on a television, or even an audio book, doesn’t count. Sure, it’s good to get started reading aloud the children’s books that will be part of your child’s library. But don’t feel limited. Just be sure to enjoy yourself. Read out loud, every day. Any book.

How to Grow a Reader (This article is located after “How to Raise a Reader”)


A Child Becomes a Reader: Proven Ideas from Research for Parents Birth through Preschool

Mothers, fathers, grandparents, and caregivers, this booklet is for you. It gives ideas for playing, talking, and reading with your child that will help him* become a good reader and writer later in life.

A Child Becomes a Reader for Parents Birth through Preschool (Pages 11-16)


Talk, Read, and Sing Together Every Day!

Here are tips that you can use to help bridge the word gap by enriching the language environment of all young children including children who do not speak yet, children with disabilities or delays, and children who are learning more than one language.

Talk, Read, and Sing Together Every Day


ColorinColorado – Help Your Child Learn to Read

There are lots of ways that you can help your children learn to read!  From the time that they are babies to the time that they are in high school, there are many little steps you can take along the way — rhyming  and singing songs, reading out loud, sounding out letters, going to the library, and reading books together in your home language. 

Helping your children learn to read might also mean finding support if they are having difficulty, which can affect their future success. This site is filled with tips for what you can do at home, fun activities, suggestions for choosing books to share together, and ideas on how you can prepare your child for a lifetime and love of reading.

Help Your Child Learn to Read (includes resources in Spanish)

Getting Ready to Read

Beginning Readers


Learning About Your Child’s Reading Development

Learning to read is difficult. While spoken language develops in most cases naturally, reading requires explicitsystematic instruction.

This page from The National Center on Improving Literacy, describes typical reading development from emergent through fluent reading. Sometimes we have concerns. This article offers a quick overview of the skills to look for and what to do if the child in your life seems to not be acquiring the skills.


Development of Phonological Skills

Basic listening skills and “word awareness” are critical precursors to phonological awareness. Learn the milestones for acquiring phonological skills. This page helps parents to understand the importance of developmental phonological skills through easy to understand definitions. There is also a table which notes the age where 80 to 90 percent of typical students have achieved each phonological skill.


Parent Guide to Helping Your Child Learn to Read for Preschool through Grade Three

Success in school starts with reading.  When children become good readers in the early grades, they are more likely to become better learners throughout their school years and beyond. Learning to read is hard work for children. Fortunately, research is now available that suggests how to give each child a good start in reading.

Put Reading First – Parent Guide


Defining Dyslexia

Dyslexia is a brain-based learning disability that specifically impairs a person’s ability to read. For individuals with dyslexia, specific portions of the brain typically associated with important reading processes may not function in the same ways that they do in individuals without dyslexia. Individuals with dyslexia often have difficulty with phonological processing, spelling, or rapid visual-verbal responding. Importantly, dyslexia is related to reading difficulties, not difficulties that arise from intellectual functioning.


Family and Community Toolbox

The purpose of the Family and Community Toolbox is to provide resources in order to build upon the natural learning opportunities that occur within a child’s daily routine in the home and community. The resources contained in this toolbox provide encouragement to families and caregivers in supporting the early language and literacy development of children in their care.

Family and Community Toolbox


Getting Involved with Your Child’s Learning

Family involvement strengthens student learning and improves academic achievement. Students with active family support have better attendance, pass more classes and earn more credits resulting in higher grade point averages and higher test scores.


Preparing For Kindergarten Success guide for Families. (Pages 2-7)


Talking is Teaching

Download our themed content bundles with curated resources for parents and caregivers—including book recommendations, posters, parent tip sheets, social media posts, and more—all designed to build children’s early brain and language development through talking, reading, and singing. Each bundle is based on a specific child-friendly theme (like books, water, or cars) that families can use to talk, read, and sing together anytime, anywhere.

Talking is Teaching Content Bundles


Ohio’s Early Learning & Development Standards

The Standards support the development and well-being of young children to foster their learning. Because the infant/toddler years are marked by rapid developmental change, the Standards are divided into three meaningful transitional periods: Infants (birth to around 8 months), Young Toddlers (6 to around 18 months), and Older Toddlers (16 to around 36 months). The Standards during the pre-kindergarten years (3-5 years), describe those developmental skills and concepts children should know and be able to do at the end of their pre-kindergarten experience.

Ohio’s Early Learning & Development Standards


Ohio Department of Education- Parents

Active, involved parents are an essential resource for Ohio’s schools in making the most of every child’s educational experience, from pre-kindergarten all the way through high school. This page has information you can use to help guide your child’s education.

My Child is in…Preschool, Kindergarten, Elementary School, etc.